top of page


Lunar Codex - Nova Collection partial.png

The Lunar Codex uses digital and analog technology to preserve art, books, music, and more. The choice of media is highly dependent on the project mission.

Analog Technology

The primary technology used by The Lunar Codex for NASA CLPS-2 Mission 1 (XM1) and for Griffin Mission 1 (GM1) - for the Neon and Polaris time capsules - is NanoFiche™.

NanoFiche is an analog technology storing orders of magnitude more content in the same space as microfiche, is impervious to temperature and humidity, and has a near-zero degradation factor.

As an archival medium, it can be expected to last for hundreds of thousands of years, if not more. Some have called it the medium of choice for a "million-year archive".

The image on the left is a micrograph of a nickel NanoFiche disc the size of a dime, one of several from the Lunar Codex. The disc contains hundreds and hundreds of small square image, each 2Kx2K pixels in size, in sets of three - one channel each for red, green, and blue.

Lunar Codex - Nova Collection partial closeup.png

The RGB channels can be re-combined - as shown below - into a multicolor reproduction of the original piece.

The multi-channel NanoFiche technology for color reproduction was developed during processing of the Lunar Codex archive, and is used for the first time ever for this archive.

While art is saved as multiple RGB (or CYMK) files, poetry and other text is saved as a single-channel image per page. Music is saved on NanoFiche as a waveform and spectral decomposition image, as sheet music, or as hex-encoded MIDI files; other formats such as WAV or MP4 are saved digitally, as is video, and not on NanoFiche.

To further illustrate how NanoFiche technology can miniaturize high-resolution images, the photo below shows the book Memory's Children and the catalof fot the art exhibit Chronicles of a Future Foretold, reduced to credit-card size using a similar gold-based microfiche technology.


The technology produces images on gold of density 20,000 dots per inch (dpi). Each page is 5 mm in height and can be read with a magnifying glass.

MC COAFF Samples w 5mm.jpg

Despite this amazing reduction in size, the gold-based technology is not being used for the Moon, because of weight considerations. We need another medium that accepts a higher resolution over a smaller area, more amenable to launching into space. That material is nickel.

Contrast the gold-etched Memory's Children with a nickel-based 200,000-dpi NanoFiche disk below, with ten times the resolution, where fonts are 1 um, the size of a bacillus bacterium.

This nickel-based NanoFiche technology - the disk in the center - is what is used in the Lunar Codex's Neon and Polaris time capsules.


The Foundation disk above is similar to the disk in the glove compartment of the red Tesla roadster launched via SpaceX in 2018.

The Memory's Children book on gold microfiche - now known as Totenpass to differentiate from the nickel-based NanoFiche - is too heavy to be economical for launch, but can theoretically withstand the environmental conditions on Mars.

NanoFiche can store 150,000 pages of text or photos on a single 8.5”x11” sheet. It is currently the highest density storage media in the world. 

For XM1, Codex graphics and text images are etched alongside other client images and enclosed in a time capsule on the NASA CLPS-2 lander.

Nanofiche time capsule.jpg

Analog technology was also used in our payload for Astrobotic's Peregrine Mission One (PM1) on Moonstone, in this case an etched silver disk that, for Codex purposes, confirms Dr. Peralta as payload provider for the program. 

Digital Technology

The primary storage technology used by Codex for PM1 is digital. This utilizes machine-readable and writeable graphics and text files in standard formats, stored on non-volatile memory cards.

NASA used the same class of memory cards for archival purposes in its Orion spacecraft MoonPod during its Artemis 1 mission in 2022. 

This NASA mission carried the Lunar Codex poem Three Faces of the Moon, completing lunar orbit and returning to Earth.


The poem will also be included in the Lunar Codex archive in 2024 via the Griffin 1 mission.

The advantage of using digital technology is its ability to record enormous amounts of data with a very small weight profile. Degradation and errors are addressed through file redundancy and/or shielding. In our case, the main Lunar Codex files are have a redundancy factor of 2 or 3, depending on the mission.

The Lunar Codex payload is enclosed in a MoonBox capsule, similar to the laser-printed containers shown below, fabricated by AON3D.

Astrobotic MoonBox 3D Print by AON3D.jpg

The Lunar Codex uses space reserved for Dr. Peralta in three physically separate MoonBox capsules. These are consolidated, along with other similar payloads, in a single DHL MoonBox canister, as shown below.

This DHL MoonBox is physically bolted to the framework of the Peregrine Lander, which, when landing, serves as a marker for the time capsules on the lunar surface.



Stacked Analog-Digital Technology

For Griffin Mission 1 (GM1) - which will carry the Codex's third time capsule Polaris - a stacked analog-digital storage system is used.

This consists of alternating layers of nickel shielding, NanoFiche memory discs, and digital memory cards, optimizing capacity and archival longevity.

Digital, analog, and hybrid time capsules will again be contained in a single sealed MoonBox canister bolted to the lunar lander's structure. The Griffin lander becomes a permanent marker of the location for the Polaris collection of the Lunar Codex.

bottom of page